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football economics

A SPECIAL REPORT ON FOOTBALL OWNERSHIP & GOVERNANCE

European football has experienced a high influx of investments in the past decade, reaching historic record-breaking numbers. Despite the turmoil in the financial markets in the past couple of years, stakeholders from around the world searching for alternative investments have found football clubs as an attractive investment asset with continuously growing valuations.
This is creating new dynamics around the ways in which football properties are governed and getting access to new ways of funding growth. This was the topic of one of the workshops that took place in WFSEurope 2022 led by Carlos Cantó from SPSG Consulting, where 16 top industry experts shared insights and debated about how these dynamics will evolve in the future.

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Global Ball Sports Luggage Market 2019-2023

The global ball sports luggage market is forecast to grow at a CAGR of almost 5% during 2018-2023, and the market size will increase by USD 190.69 million during the forecast period of 2019-2023. Between 2018-2023, the ball sports luggage market will grow at a faster pace than the overall market growth in 2019. The growth momentum of the ball sports luggage market is expected to accelerate in the second half of the forecast period compared to the increase in the first half.The ball sports luggage market is fragmented, and the degree of fragmentation is expected to remain the same by 2023. An outlook of accelerating growth would provide opportunities to all market participants to grow. Market participants should focus on the opportunities on the demand side rather than getting overly impacted with the competitive dynamics. The accelerating growth momentum will be one of the contributing factors moderating the competitive intensity in the market over the forecast period.

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UEFA Club Competition Landscape Report 2019-2020

The inaugural edition of the UEFA Club Competition Landscape Report takes a detailed look at the 80 clubs who will take part in the group stages of the 2019/20 UEFA Champions League and UEFA Europa League.

Produced by UEFA’s Intelligence Centre – created in 2017 to assist policy-makers and decision-takers in making informed judgments – the publication is packed with data, research and analysis. It shows the trends among these clubs, both in terms of on-field performance and off-the-pitch benchmarks.

The report is a much more boutique publication than the UEFA Intelligence Centre’s now established annual Benchmarking report, and its narrower scope on the 80 clubs in the club competition group stages this season allows for a more agile and up-to-date report.

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Exploring the link between sport and economics

Further understanding sports and their link with economics can increase our knowledge of how to use sports in economic development. Much of the sports industry, which can be valuable in promoting social change, has not been given so much attention. Grassroot sports in particular have a lot of potential and support the creative side of economies. In the words of the World Economic Forum, “In general, the category of Sport that can benefit society most is actually not receiving the appropriate levels of support from various stakeholders; however, this could change should the Creative Economy find both economic and social value in investing more in grass roots Sport, where innovative partnership models between the public and private sectors could be effective.”

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Commission decides Spanish professional football clubs have to pay back incompatible aid

Following three separate in-depth investigations, the European Commission has concluded that public support measures granted by Spain to seven professional football clubs gave those clubs an unfair advantage over other clubs in breach of EU State aid rules.

As a result, Spain has to recover the illegal State aid amounts from the seven clubs, namely FC Barcelona, Real Madrid, Valencia, Athletic Bilbao, Atlético Osasuna, Elche and Hercules.

Commissioner Margrethe Vestager, in charge of competition policy, commented: “Using tax payers’ money to finance professional football clubs can create unfair competition. Professional football is a commercial activity with significant money involved and public money must comply with fair competition rules. The subsidies we investigated in these cases did not.”

EU State aid rules apply to public interventions in the market to ensure that they do not distort competition by selectively favouring one market participant over another. Professional sport is an economic activity. Football clubs conduct marketing, merchandising, TV broadcasting, transfer of players etc., and compete at international level. In many cases, professional football clubs have significant turnover. EU State aid rules ensure that public funding does not distort competition between clubs. They protect the level playing field for the majority of professional clubs who have to operate without subsidies.

The first investigation concerned tax privileges in favour of Real Madrid, FC Barcelona, Athletic Bilbao and Atlético Osasuna. In Spain, professional football clubs are considered as limited liability companies for tax purposes. However, these four clubs were treated as non-profit organisations, which pay a 5% lower tax rate on profit than limited liability companies. The four clubs benefitted from this lower tax rate during over twenty years, without an objective justification. Spain has in the meantime adjusted its legislation on corporate taxation to end this discriminatory treatment effective as of January 2016. To remove the undue advantage received in the past, the clubs now have to return the unpaid taxes. Based on available information the Commission estimates that the amounts that need to be recovered are limited (€0-5 million per club) but the precise amounts that need to be paid back are to be determined by the Spanish authorities in the recovery process.

In a second investigation, the Commission examined a land transfer between Real Madrid and the City of Madrid. The inquiry determined, based on an independent study, that the land affected by the transaction was overvalued by €18.4 million. This gave Real Madrid an unjustified advantage over other clubs, which it now needs to pay back.

Finally, the Commission investigated guarantees given by the State-owned Valencia Institute of Finance (IVF) for loans granted to three Valencia football clubs (Valencia, Hercules and Elche). At the time, those clubs were in financial difficulties. The public guarantee allowed the clubs to obtain the loans on more favourable terms. As the clubs paid no adequate remuneration for the guarantees, this gave them an economic advantage over other clubs, who have to raise money without state backing. The state financing was not linked to any restructuring plan to make the clubs viable and none of them implemented compensatory measures to offset the distortion of competition created by the subsidy. In order to restore the level playing field with non-subsidised clubs, Valencia, Hercules and Elche now have to pay back the advantage they received. This amounts to €20.4 million for Valencia, €6.1 million for Hercules and €3.7 million for Elche.

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